“When masses of men have been repressed for a long time by adverse social, political and economic conditions, they seem to accept the open expression -- above all the open demonstration -- of hatred with deep satisfaction. Almost every war is followed by strange manias of persecution which affect the civilian population more than they do the returning soldier, unless that soldier deems himself a victim of ingratitude. Thus after 1918 the United States witnessed the spread of the Ku Klux Klan, a crusade against the 'Reds,' and several anti-negro riots in major cities. In France hostility to American and other foreign troops was so marked that cantonments had to be evacuated more speedily than had been planned.
In Germany, at all events, one principal reason why the Rightist revolt against the Republic succeeded was the progressive emphasis upon hatred in action. The bloody repression which marked the end of the short-lived 'Soviet' state in Bavaria did not arouse sentiments of pity in all the citizens of Munich. The Hitler putsch of 1923 made the Party more popular in the city than it had been before. When the Nazis drove dissenters or imaginary dissenters from their meetings with cudgels, their audiences grew larger. Few people in Germany were at bottom anti-Semitic, but the joy large numbers felt in promises of blood-curdling treatment to be meted out to the helpless minority made them responsive to the suggestion. Smashing windows and street fighting were relied upon to win the crowd. The propagandists encouraged them all. 'We shall reach our goal,' declared Goebbels, 'when we have the courage to laugh as we destroy, as we smash, whatever was sacred to us as tradition, as education, as friendship and as human affection.' In the Vienna of March, 1938, ordinary citizens who had hitherto gone about peacefully, confessed to a strange delight in the sufferings visited upon the Jewish group.”