“summing-up of Western Christianity's long campaign against Islam would have to make these points: the spiritual pressure applied by the missionaries on Islam was a Christian initiative; the West was carrying the battle to Islam, which is why the confrontation took place on Muslim, not Christian territory; the main, indeed the sole, object of the campaign was conversion and ... it failed everywhere. Was it all worth the effort? On the positive side one has to take into account the example set by thousands of brave, sincere, dedicated missionaries; the sick healed; the children educated (but a very mixed blessing this); the reformation or abolition of social evils, like slavery or the killing of twins.
On the negative side is the deep, widespread and long-lasting resentment produced in Islam by the polemical attacks made on it by missionary propogandists, an essential element in any campaign of proselytization. The emotional gulf this has created between the two religions can probably never be bridged. Was it worth creating this antagonism to effect the conversion of a few thousand Muslims?”